The Reds' 3-1 loss to Hannover on Saturday left the side rooted to the bottom of the Bundesliga and prompted the club to dismiss the entire coaching staff.
Stuttgart have sacked head coach Tayfun Korkut after a run of just one win in seven matches at the start of the Bundesliga season.
A 3-1 loss to fellow strugglers Hannover on Saturday saw them drop to the foot of the table, with just five points to their name and a goal difference of minus seven.
The club have responded by dismissing Korkut and his two assistants, Ilija Aracic and Steven Cherundolo, despite him having signed a contract extension in June.
"The lack of development in the course of this season and the negative results have led us to take this step," said sporting director Michael Reschke.
"Tayfun Korkut took over the team last season in a very difficult situation and secured with an extraordinary run this Bundesliga season for VfB. We are very grateful to him and his two assistant coaches Ilija Aracic and Steven Cherundolo."
President Wolfgang Dietrich added: "This decision was very difficult for us. After the pleasing progress of the past season, we were confident that we could continue the positive development with Tayfun Korkut as head coach in the new season.
"Unfortunately, that was not successful. Above all, our responsibility lies with VfB Stuttgart and its sporting future."
Korkut, 44, took over in January and guided Stuttgart away from the relegation zone to a seventh-place finish.
Coaches Andreas Hinkel, Matthias Schiffers, Marco Langner and Andreas Schumacher will take charge of the first team until a replacement is named.