Is Indigenous Peoples' Day 2021 a federal holiday? In which states is it observed as a holiday?
30 years after it was first celebrated, President Biden proclaimed Indigenous Peoples' Day a national holiday to be celebrated alongside Columbus Day.
Indigenous Peoples' Day was started as an alternative to Columbus Day, to bring recognition to native peoples’ histories and stories. The holiday began nearly three decades ago on the 500th anniversary of the arrival in the Americas of Christopher Columbus and a flotilla of Spanish explorers.
President Joe Biden on 8 October unexpectedly made the first-ever presidential proclamation of Indigenous Peoples' Day giving the holiday celebrated in cities and states across the US an increased national spotlight. However, the proclamation doesn’t make it a federal holiday, that would require Congress to pass legislation cementing the day in the US calendar of federally recognized holidays.
A brief history of Indigenous Peoples' Day
The idea of replacing Columbus Day with a holiday for first inhabitants of the Americas was first presented in 1977 by participants at the United Nations International Conference on Discrimination against Indigenous Populations in the Americas. Ahead of the 100th anniversary of the of Wounded Knee Massacre, where US soldiers killed around 300 Lakota people, the governor of South Dakota responded to calls from Tim Giago, a Native American publisher, and asked the state's legislature to proclaim 1990 as the "Year of Reconciliation" between Native Americans and whites. Lawmakers voted unanimously for the proposal and South Dakota became the first state to do away with Columbus Day and replace it with Native American Day.
As celebrations were being organized in the San Francisco Bay Area for the "Quincentennial Jubilee" of the landing of Christopher Columbus in what is now the Bahamas, a group called Resistance 500 made plans for a counter-celebration. The group convinced the Berkeley City Council to replace the 12 October Columbus Day with the Day of Solidarity with Indigenous People in 1992. The unanimous vote made Berkeley the first city to do away with celebrating the troubled history of the explorer/colonizer and instead celebrate Native Americans and is generally credited with starting Indigenous Peoples' Day.
This Monday is #IndigenousPeoplesDay. Join @SmithsonianNMAI for a free event highlighting Black-Indigenous youth working to advance social justice. Advance registration required. Art by Paige Pettibon (Black and Salish descent). https://t.co/jX6bKszbKg pic.twitter.com/sIqocsXGuR— The Office of Indian Education (@OIEIndianED) October 8, 2021
Celebration of Indigenous Peoples spreads
Although Columbus Day celebrates Italian heritage as well as the Genovese-born explorer’s discovery of the Americas on 12 October 1492, the history of harm and suffering that befell the inhabitants of the lands colonized created ever louder calls to change the focus of the holiday. Over the years this movement has gained momentum to where now well over a hundred cities recognize Indigenous Peoples' Day to focus on the contributions and history of Native peoples.
More states have followed South Dakota over the years with nearly a score celebrating only Indigenous Peoples' Day or in conjunction with Columbus Day. They include the District of Columbia along with the states of Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Hawai’i, Idaho, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Vermont, Virginia, Wisconsin.
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